When a root canal isn't enough to save the tooth
In most cases a root canal treatment or if necessary retreatment are effective at saving teeth with infected pulp from needing to be extracted. However, occasionally endodontic surgery is required in order to remove the portion of damaged bone and root tip. This procedure is referred to as an apicoectomy or root-end resection.
To perform a root-end resection, an incision is made in the gum tissue, exposing the bone and inflamed tissue, which is then removed along with the root tip.
To prevent reinfection, the bone and root-tip is filled and the tissue is sutured to heal. Over a period of months, the bone around the root tip will heal to full function.